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Growth and Development

Page history last edited by PBworks 11 years, 10 months ago

Pediatric Growth and Development

 


 

Newborns (First Hours After Birth)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 100-180 beats per minute, Respirations 30-60 breaths per minute, SPO2 85-95% is normal.

 

Awesome physiologic changes occur immediately following birth. The capilaries and arteriols of the lungs that had been closed are opened up with the first breaths.

 

 

Neonates (Birth to 1 Month)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 100-160 beats per minute, Respirations 30-60 breaths per minute

 

Neonates typically loose 10% of their birth weight initially but recover it within 10 days. Illness typically include jaundice, vomiting and respiratory distress. Fever is often the only sign that illness is present. Neonates are typically closest to mother and father.

 

Infants (1-5 Months)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 100-160 beats per minute, Respirations 30-60 breaths per minute

 

Infants should have doubled their birth weight by 5-6 months. They track movements with thier eyes and muscle control is beginning to develop. Most illnesses or accidents include: SIDS, vomiting, dehydration, meningitis, child abuse and household accidents.

Try to assess these patients on the caregiver's lap when possible to keep them comfortable.

 

Infants (6-12 Months)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 100-180 beats per minute, Respirations 30-60 breaths per minute

 

Infants in this age group are very active and may be crawling or even walking. They explore everything with thier mouths and are at high risk for FBAO. These children have a high stranger anxiety therefore should be assesed on a caregiver's lap. Common illnesses and accidents include: febrile seizure, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, bronchiolitis, car crashes, croup, child abuse, poisonings, falls, airway obstructions and meningitis.

 

Toddlers (1-3 Years)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 100-180 beats per minute, Respirations 30-60 breaths per minute

 

Toddlers have had much development of motor skills. They can now run, jump climb and explore. They are more brave and stray away from caregivers. They have also leaned language skills but most likely still understand more than they can say. Accidents are the number one cause of injury deaths. Illness includes vomiting, diarrhea, febrile seizures, poisonings, falls, child abuse, croup and memingitis.

Be cautious when assessing toddlers. Talk slowly and quietly and at the same level as the child. Exam from toe to head. Be honest and let them keep a favorite toy or blanket.

 

Preschoolers (3-5 Years)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 70-110 beats per minute, Respirations 22-34 breaths per minute, average Blood Pressure 98/65

 

Preschoolers have even more advanced language and motor skills than toddlers. They also have vivid imaginations and are very literal. Ask questions of the child but rely on caregivers to verify facts and fill in the blanks. Do not trick the patient or lie to them. Also explain everything you are about to do and let them see and touch equipment if possible. Demonstrate on yourself or a doll what you are going to do.

Common illnesses and accidents are croup, asthma, poisonings, auto collisions, burns, child abuse, foreign bodies, drownings, epiglottitis, febrile seizures and meningitis.

 

School-Age Children (6-12 Years)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 65-100 beats per minute, Respirations 18-30 breaths per minute, average Blood Pressure 105/69

 

School-age children are active and carefree. They seek approval from parents and value peer opinions. These children can give history on selves but may not want to admit when an injury occured doing something forbidden. These patients are developing modesty, be sure to respect that with them. Be honest with these patients. Common illnesses and injuries are drownings, auto collisions, bicycle accidents, falls, fractures, sports injuries, child abuse and burns.

 

Adolescents (11 or 13-18 Years)

Normal vital signs are Pulse 60-90 beats per minute, Respirations 12-26 breaths per minute, average Blood Pressure 114/76

 

Adolescents actually starts at puberty. Girls may start at age 11, boys may start at age 13. Adolescents are body conscious and worry about their physical images. Teens in this age group feel that they are adults and want to be treated the same. Relationships with parents may be stressed because of this. Generally teens place more value on the approval of peers than caregivers.

Common illnesses and injuries in this age group are mononucleosis, asthma, auto collisions, sports injuries, drug and alchol problems, suicide gestures and possibly pregnancy.

 

Author

 

  • Jen Weiss, Night Stalkers III

 

Sources

 

  1. Brady Paramedic Care, Volume 5 Special Considerations Operations

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